By Rajaram G
ES-331 CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION
Answer the following questions in 1500 words total - (i.e each in 500 words):
1. What are the important sources of curriculum evaluation? Discuss the importance of curriculum evaluation?
The Worldwide Resource Pack in Curriculum Change has been constructed around a framework of concepts and trends that characterize contemporary curriculum development. For the purposes of this Resource Pack, curriculum can be defined as the organization of learning sequences with a view to producing specific, intended learning outcomes, and curriculum development is a set of practices aimed at introducing planned changes in search of better achievements.
The resources contained in this pack seek to develop conceptual understandings about curriculum development and an appreciation of the nature, philosophy and principles of curriculum change as a dynamic and on-going process. It could be useful in producing a paradigm shift in approaching the various dimensions of curriculum change in a way that highlights their inter-relatedness.
Resources included herein are elaborated to various degrees in the conceptual modules of the Resource Pack through the consideration of selected discussion papers and are illustrated in the various case studies. Through a series of activities divided into concrete tasks, the user will be able to understand contemporary curriculum change processes, taking into consideration:
• Concepts of quality and relevance in education and their implications for curriculum change;
• Curriculum change as a complex and dynamic process involving a range of stakeholders in the development of a series of products;
• The implications of emerging trends in curriculum change on
o Policy making,
o Curriculum design, including the structure of curriculum frameworks and subject syllabuses,
o Time and space allocation,
o Education system governance and management, including resource management,
o Textbook development,
o Assessment and evaluation and
o Teacher training and professional development.
The Important sources of curriculum evaluation should be taken in consideration while evaluation any curriculum. These are the imporant sources of curriculum evaluation.
To evaluate the curriculum, students are the most important sources. First of all we should meet from the students who are facing the curriculum because they can be said primary and the most imporant sources of information regarding how relevant the intended curriculum is and how well it is being implemented students can give us various useful informations about the curriculum. They can tell that there are many outdated datas of any aspect in their curriculum. We should try to find out the preceptions of students regarding the extent to which they feel, they have achieved the objectives of the course.
Teachers are also important sources of curriculum evaluation because they implement the organisation of the curriculum. We can collect some information from the teachers who are teaching the target subject and other teachers who have sufficient content, knowledge and background information on that curriculum. Teacher is the important source of curriculum evaluation because he/she transacts the curriculum in practice. Teachers can provide informations about the implementation of the curriculum. They can present some dead wood of curriculum which should be removed to make it updated and relevant.
We can collect some useful information about curriculum evaluation from subject experts because they know basic micro-points of the concepts and content of any curriculum. The experts can provide valuable informations on the field conditions, which had tremendous value for the purpose of curriculum evalution. They can want to add some new tehories and facts in any part of the curriculum.
Curriculum experts can present some informations on the modern techniques used for developing a curriculum sothat if can become more meaningful from the students points of veiw. They may tell us that we should remove age old practice of assembling content points in telegrphich language into a syllabus of curriculum. They may add some new innovations in the curriculum sothat students could take part in instructional process whole heartedly and aimfully.
Policy makers may also be the important source of curriculum evaluation. We can study many books and journals published time to time by many policy makers to know new policies regarding the target curriculum. We should read theories and planning of Central Board of Secondary Education and National Council of Educational Research & Training regarding the curriculum. These policy makers may make curriculum related to employment or any proffession. They can make students ready for self-employment after completion of any course. So we should evaluate the curriculum of any course according to the views of policy makers.
Community is also an important source of curriculum evaluation. We should try to know the requirments of the local community sothat if could be relevant and need-based curriculum. We may feel that in rural areas students should be made more familior with the new inventions of various factors. The students of rural areas are not as familior with information technology as the students of urban areas, so we may find that the curriculum for the students of rural areas should have more information and contents regarding information technology.
DROP OUT SAMPLE:
We can also collect some informations regarding evaluation of curriculum from drop-out students because they can pin-points the curriculor factors that might have been responsible for their withdraw from the course. We can organise a diagnastic test to diagnose the areas of difficulties of these students and then try to arrange treatment of these problemes in new structured curriculum.
EMPLOYERS AND ENTREPRENEURS:
We know that every student wants to get an employment after his formal education so today it is necessary that an education should be related to employment. We should collect some information from employers, what they went to have in an educated youth. As for example we may find that employers want to give employment to a youth who has knowledge about operating computer very well. In present curriculum basic knowledge and practice may be related to the technique of accounting of traditional accounts.
IMPORTANCE OF CURRICULUM EVALUATION:
We shold evaluate curriculum at the school of make it more effective and aimful. These may be some dead woods in curriculum which may become outdated due to a long time. We should evaluate the existing curriculum and modify it to make it more relevant. We can see various inventions, developments, changes in every sector of life. We should submit these changes into curriculum to make it update. For this process first of all we should evaluate existing curriculum. Through evaluation we can assess the effectiveness of curriculum and can make necessary changes, improvements to make it more effective and meaningful. Sometimes intened curriculum can not be implemented in its original aspects to reduce this gap we need to evaluate it. This curriculum evaluation is very important because through it we can increase efficiency and effectiveness of curriculum.
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Q.2) Discuss how you will use probing skills while
teaching in the classroom with a help of a suitable
Articles on the subject of classroom questioning often begin by invoking Socrates. Researchers and other writers concerned with questioning techniques seem to want to remind us that questioning has a long and venerable history as an educational strategy. And indeed, the Socratic method of using questions and answers to challenge assumptions, expose contradictions, and lead to new knowledge and wisdom is an undeniably powerful teaching approach.
In addition to its long history and demonstrated effectiveness, questioning is also of interest to researchers and practitioners because of its widespread use as a contemporary teaching technique. Research indicates that questioning is second only to lecturing in popularity as a teaching method and that classroom teachers spend anywhere from thirty-five to fifty percent of their instructional time conducting questioning sessions.
We ask various questions from our students during teaching, learning process. It is not necessary that all the responses given by students are correct. They may be incorrect or partialy correct also. To facilitate the students in reaching correct responses, we have to go deep and probe into their responses by asking a number of additional questions. These questions should be based on the knowledge, what our students already know. There may be some problems for students in understanding the questions, in the wording of the question or any problems in understanding the question. Teacher should remove these problems or defects of questions and use various behaviours and questions sothat students could response correctly. The techniques that deals with student response going deep into students knowledge by asking a series of questions is called probing. Sometimes students do not concentrate their attention towords required or desired response due to style of question, due to under aim or requirement of question. In probing skills, teacher asks various questions with different styles in a series sothat teacher could explore the knowledge of students. We can divide probing skills into five components as: -
Seeking further information
Increasing Critical Awareness
To discuss probing skills, we have to explain all five components of it with suitable example.
1. SEEKING FURTHER INFORMATION:
This component is used when students provide partially correct or incomplete answer of any question. As we know that sometimes students do not understand the intended or desired responses of the question. Although they know complete or correct answer of it or they have complete knowledge about the concept on which the teahcer asked question, but they do not response completely and correctly due to hindrance or unclarity in structure of question or words. Then teacher should use skills for seeking further information. Teacher can help students to elaborate clarity or explain the response. He/she can ask additional questions from the students for going deep and probing their responses.
As for example we as question from students as “What are the main reasons of population explosion”? Students provide only two reasons in response. Then we can ask additional questions like this “Will you please add some other reasons of it”? “How can you say that child marriage is responsible for population explosion”? on the otherside we can help students to elaborate his/her answer, even it is correct or complete, because we can seek further information about that very point to know how much the student knows about that point. As for example (1). What more you know about the battle of panipat? (2). Tell me the name of the kings between whom this bettle was fought? Through this kind of questions, we can help students to clarity to complete, or to elaborate their answers. A teacher can seek further informations by using the behaviours related to this component.
According to this component, teacher should give clues or hints and help the students by asking them leding questions. As we know that in stage drama, prompter used to give hints to actor about the dialogue which should be spoken by him/her. Like this teacher provides prompts to his/her students. Prompts can help students to arrive at the correct response by means of systamatic step by step questioning process. The teacher should begin prompting the students from what he/she knows and then proceed towards the standard response.
According to refocusing component of probing skills, teacher should relate the present topic or concept to the pre-knowledge of the student. The main aim behind this is to make the students aware of the implication of a given response in more complex and novel situation. Teacher can use refocussing at the time of presentation of questions, when he wants to present the topic for students by relating to previous one.
When teacher wants to increase the participation of students in instructional process then teacher puts or directs the same question to several other students for the desired response. Teacher can put the some question to many students in order to get the expected response, as for example – Teacher asks question “What are the main reasons of Air Pollution?” and students does not give response. Then teacher can direct the question to other students as “Sudha, you tell me the reason of Air Pollution?” suppose Sudha provides any one reason of it then teacher can redirect this question “can you tell me other reason of it, Sunder?”
5. INCREASING CRITICAL AWARENESS:
Through using this component, a teacher can find out the students increased critical awareness. Teacher should start questions from why (reason) and how (process). Teacher asks questions to justify the students’ response rationally. Thus we can say that a teacher should make him/her skillful in various teaching skills to make instructional process more effective and aimful. Through probing skills a teacher can probe the deep knowledge of students during instructional, process by applying its above mentioned components. Probing skill is very important skill to go deep of to probe the response of the students.
Dillon, J.T. “Research on Questioning and Discussion.” Educational Leadership 42(1984): 50-56.
Gall, M. “Synthesis of Research on Teachers’ Questioning.” Educational Leadership 42(1984): 40–47.
Gall, M.D.; Ward, B.A., Berliner, D.C.; Cahen, L.S.; Winne, P.H.; Elashoff, J.D.; and Stanton, G.C.
Q.3: List some common problems faced in the classrooms
and suggest the possible way to effectively manage
Traditionally, teachers are encouraged to believe that the learning environment must be orderly and quiet. For some principals, a quiet classroom means effective teaching. With the growing movement toward co-operative learning, however, more teachers are using activities in which students take an active role. Sharing ideas and information with various activities occurring at the same time can make for noisy classrooms. But it would be a mistake to conclude that in such classrooms students are not learning.
The classroom management and mastering order inside the classroom are the most important factors in educational process and basic requirements. They are considered the basic problems which face the teacher since teachers complain about mastering the order inside the classroom, and it consumes much effort and time, and they are considered as sensitive, important and critical factors for the teacher’s success or failure in his tasks.
The concept “classroom order” point to the learner’s behavior discipline according to the followed systems and rules which facilitate the process of classroom interaction towards achieving the planned goals states that the behavioral problems may appear as a result of inappropriate skills which students learn, choosing inappropriate time for learning, and the restricted learning opportunities offered to students. Teachers do not generally want to give control to their students. They are instructed that the mark of a good teacher is the teacher who controls the class. The amount of control that teachers have in the class is often seen by the administration as a measurement of the quality of a teacher.
Administrators are usually happy if a teacher never sends a student to the office and interpret this as proof that the teacher is in control and must be doing a good job. The school behavioral problems considered the most dangerous ones, which face the components of the educational process (teachers, principals, parents, and supervisors) .The disorder, theft, properties vandalism, violence against teachers and student, are the matters that may threaten the educational process. Students that practice distruptive behavior cause disciplinary problems in the classroom and have negative efforts on student, it may also lead to low achievement. There are many academic and behavioral problems regarding students that face teacher in the classroom and has a direct impact on the teaching – learning process such as: forgetting school tools, frequent absence, lack of attention, hyperactivity, inappropriate talk in the classroom vandalism, disobedience, aggressiveness, refused to do tasks and school works. There is no instruction without any problems, as long the classroom has different achievement factors, and different personality. The above said common problems faced in the classroom. We are presenting these problems one by one with suggestion about the possible way to effectively manage these problems.
1. STUDENTS EXHIBIT UNDESIRABLE BEHAVIOUR
TOWARDS THE TEACHER IN THE CLASSROOM:
To overcome this problem, we shall use principle of teacher behaviour first of all. As we know that students learn very much regarding their behaviour by initiating behaviour of the teacher because they consider the teacher as a model person. We shall display various positive attributes confidence, determination, will power, co-operativeness, affection, helping nature etc, in our behaviour. Positive attributes in the teacher’s behaviour help develop a desirable behaviour in the students. This is because students always observe and analyse their teacher’s behaviour and comopare it with what he/she professes. We should use such behaviour in class which could not have any negative impact on our students. Through this principle we can overcome this problem.
We should use principle of prosonal attributes also to overcome this problem. We as a teacher should display certain personal attributes in our behaviour such as warmth, sympahty, empathy, caretaking behaviour, harmony and respect for one another, dignity of work, peace and self-discipline sothat students could also apply these personal attributes in their own behaviour. We should find out the personal, acadamic, problems of the students and try to solve or try to help in solving these problems by helping nature. 0n the whole teachers co-operative and helping nature can change the undesirable behaviour of any student.
2. STUDENTS IN CLASSROOM FAIL TO UNDERSTAND THE
SUBJECT MATTER PRESENTED BY THE TEACHER:
To overcome this problem teacher should use principle of clarity and mastery over content. Teacher should increase his/her knowledge through regular self-study and teaching competent through in service trainings. Teacher can make understand the students various complicated concepts, facts, and theories through own knowledge. Through knowledge can help a teacher properly conceptualise the content to be covered in his/her lesson. Teacher should organise his/her teaching – learning process according to mental level, interests, needs, pre-knowledge of students.
Teacher can use the principle of involvement also to overcome this problem. As we know that active participation of the students in instructional process is a condition of learning. The skill of questioning, receiving and providing feedback, can make teaching-learning a two-way process. If students take part meaningfully in teaching – learning process, if teacher has mastery over content, if teacher has diagnoses the problem of students and provide remediation to students, then we can overcome this problem.
3. STUDENTS DO NOT FEEL CONCERN FOR THEIR FELLOW STUDENTS:
If students do not feel concern for the fellow students then we (as a teacher) should develop some personal attributes in the students as co-operation, helping nature, attention, brotherhood etc. We can develop these attributes by using principle of personal attributes. As we know that students consider teacher as a model person and try to compare and initate the behaviour of the teacher. Teacher should try to develop psycho-social climate in the classroom. Teacher should provide chance to students to work in groups by co-operation sothat they could feel concern for their fellow students. Teacher should provide projects to the groups of students to complete them by co-operation sothat students could work on the project by helping one another. Teacher should try to provide chance to students to interaction with each other.
4. STUDENTS DISLIKE THE TEACHER BECAUSE OF FAVOURTISM SHOWN BY HIM/HER TOWARDS SOME STUDENTS:
We can overcome this problem by using principle of democratic behaviour. The teacher should provide equal opportunity to every student – to participate in teaching – learning activities. Teacher should try to show such behaviour in classroom sothat no one could feel himself/herself neglected. Teacher should provide equal responsibility to all students. Sometime teacher provides more opportunity to the excellent students so weak and average student feel themselves negleted. Teacher shold try to make participation of all students in teaching-learning process. We should use principle of teacher behaviour in classroom also. As we know that students always observe the behviour of the teacher. We should be conscious that our behaviour in the classroom is being minutely observed by our students. So we should use such behaviour in class which could create democratic and co-operative environment in classroom.
As a whole we can say that teacher faces many problems in clasroom daily. Teacher has to overcome these problems to create a healthy learning environment in classroom. Teacher should use various principles of classroom management according to need to manage classroom situations. First of all teacher should analyse the causes of problem (s) and then try to overcome these problems by avoiding these causes. Teacher should not have negative attitudes towards problematic students. He/She should try to overcome these problems through positive attitudes by using principles of classroom management.
TECHNIQUES TO MANAGE THE CLASSROOM:
Many factors contribute to successful classroom management. Teachers who are successful do not only respond properly when problems occur, but prevent the problem before it arises. These teachers are pro-active instead of reactive.
Teachers who demonstrate effective classroom control are skilled five key areas. They area able to co-ordinate, communicate, check, coach, and demonstrate consistency. Technology can provide teachers resources in each key area.
Before learners enter the classroom, organization plans are well in place. The teacher has determined the necessary procedures, scheduling, materials, routines, and developed transitional activities.
1. BEHAVIOUR MODIFICATION TECHNIQUES:
We should modify the behaviour of students towards desired direction sothat students could take part in instructional process effectively and meaningfully. The teacher has to ignore inappropriate or undersirable behaviours and has to reinforce appropriate or desirable behaviours of the students.
2. STUDENT RESPONSIBILITY:
A teacher should provide responsibily to students to maintain discipline in classroom. The teacher’s job is to make the students aware of the expecations and the consequences of their desirable and undesirable behaviours. Through this technique we can ensure self-discipline among our students during organisation of instruction. Teacher should modify their unproductive behaviour and motivate them towards desirable actions and behaviours. In brief we should provide responsibility to disruptive students for self-discipline and other productive works.
3. GROUP ACTIVITIES:
Teacher should make various groups of the students in the class according to their needs, interests, ability and capacity. Teacher should assign some activities; project works etc. to these groups according to the needs and interests of the students. Students should be provided opportunity to work in groups with mutual co-operation students can perform various works in these kinds of group activities and can develop healthy competitive spirit and self confidence. The group activities help in effective management of the classroom. Teacher should make groups of students in which he should have the students of the same interest. Teacher should play the role of a guide or facilitator in this process. He should provide freeness to students regarding some matters. He should not force his/her personal likes and dislikes on students.
4. SKILL IN MAINTAINING STUDENTS ATTENTION:
Teacher should try to maintain students’ attention during organisation of institution. If a teacher gets success in maintaining students attention towards instructional process then it can ensure effective management of instruction. We can include in it proper seating arrangement also. Besides variation in voice, movement of facing can be used to refocus their attention during instructional process sometimes honour should be used to break the monotony and to create a desired environment for effective management of classroom.
We can face various problems in classroom which can affect negativety to classroom management. To manage classcroom can use above mentained techniques. Through applying these techniques. We can manage the problems effectively. Many times teacher should take prompt decision for various problems faced in the classroom. For it teacher should try to know the reason of various problems and should try to overcome these problems and to mange the classroom effectively. As whole we can say that every teacher should use various principle and techniques of classroom management to overcome, various problems faced in the classrooms.
The problems in the classroom, and schools in general, are considered one of the most serious factors facing the component of the educational process, such as parents, teachers, educational administrators, and supervisors, also vandalism, theft, destruction of property, failure in the school, poor study accomplishment, lack of educational facilities such as equipment and technology, the physical environment, and the violence against teachers and students. All these issues could threaten the whole educational process. The results of this study show that the level of the classroom problems of the Education Districts province was medium, from the teachers point of view, there was no statistically significant difference, in the academic problems domain, while there was a statistically significant difference, in the behavioral problems, due to the interaction variables, gender, and school level and experience.
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