Programme Code : BED
Course Code : BESE-065
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Year : 2013 Views: 4531 Submitted By : SUCHITRA MANDAL On 21st April, 2013

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Briefly explain the need and importance of HIV and AIDS education.( 250 words


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BESE-065: HIV AND AIDS EDUCATION -2013

Presented by www.myignou.in

Answer the following questions

i) Briefly explain the need and importance of HIV and AIDS education.( 250

words)

Each year there are more and more new HIV infections, which shows that people either aren't

learning the message about the dangers of HIV, or are unable or unwilling to act on it. Many

people are dangerously ignorant about the virus - a survey found recently that a third of teens

thought there was a 'cure' for AIDS. Education is an important component of preventing the

spread of HIV.

Even if education were completely successful, it would still have to be an ongoing process - each

generation a new generation of people become adult and need to know how to protect themselves

from infection. The older generations, who have hopefully already been educated, may need the

message reinforced, and need to be kept informed, so that they are able to protect themselves and

inform the younger.

There are three main reasons for AIDS education, the first of which is to prevent new infections

from taking place. This can be seen as consisting of two processes:

Giving people information about HIV - what HIV and AIDS are, how they are transmitted,

and how people can protect themselves from infection.

Teaching people how to put this information to use and act on it practically - how to get and

use condoms, how to suggest and practice safer sex, how to prevent infection in a medical

environment or when injecting drugs.

A second reason that AIDS education is needed is to improve quality of life for HIV positive

people. Too often, AIDS education is seen as being something which should be targeted only at

people who are not infected with HIV in order to prevent them from becoming infected. When

AIDS education with HIV positive people is considered at all it is frequently seen only in terms

of preventing new infections by teaching HIV+ people about the importance of not passing on

the virus. An important and commonly-neglected aspect of AIDS education with HIV positive

people is enabling and empowering them to improve their quality of life. HIV positive people

have varying educational needs, but among them are the need to be able to access medical

services and drug provision and the need to be able to find appropriate emotional and practical

support and help

The third reason people need AIDS education is to reduce stigma and discrimination. In many

countries there is a great deal of fear and stigmatization of people who are HIV positive. This

fear is too often accompanied by ignorance, resentment and ultimately, anger. Sometimes the

results of prejudice and fear can be extreme, with HIV positive people being burned to death in

India, and many families being forced to leave their homes across the United States when

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neighbors discover a family-member's positive status. Discrimination against positive people can

help the AIDS epidemic to spread - if people are fearful of being tested for HIV, then they are

more likely to pass the infection to someone else without knowing.

Who needs to be educated?

Anyone who is vulnerable to AIDS, and almost everyone is vulnerable, unless they know how to

protect themselves. It's not only young people, injecting drug users or gay men who become

infected - the virus has affected a cross-section of society. This means that education ought to be

aimed at all parts of society, not only those groups who are seen as being particularly high-risk.

It is all very well to educate young people but it's usually adults who become infected, and in

recent years there has been very little AIDS education targeted at adults. The people who are

most urgently in need of HIV education are those who think they're not at risk.

People who have not yet been educated and may be at risk of becoming infected. This usually

means young people, who need to know the risks involved in unsafe sex and drug use before

they are old enough to find out for themselves.

People who have already been educated for whom the education was not effective. If AIDS

education were completely effective, there wouldn't be nearly so many new infections. These

infections do not only occur amongst young people - many people who have already experienced

AIDS education continue to become infected with HIV.

"A few months after we started having unprotected sex, I fell gravely ill. . . I recovered slowly

but . . . I guess the warning signs have been there since I fell sick earlier this year, I'm educated

on HIV and some of my symptoms literally had the warning bells ringing inside my head. Still,

the shock of discovering my status is something I will never wish on my worst enemy." TKanonymous

Everyone needs to learn how and why not to discriminate against positive people. People who

are not HIV positive must learn about how the virus is transmitted in order that they are able to

protect themselves from infection. At the same time, they must also learn how the virus is not

transmitted. People need to know that they cannot become infected from such things as sharing

food, towels or toilets. This will help to reduce discrimination against positive people by

reducing ignorance and fear.

People who are already infected also require education. Initially, this must involve an element

of counseling and support, and must teach them how about living well with HIV, the tests they

may need to have and the medications they may need to take. They must also learn about HIV

transmission and safer sex, for two reasons - they need to know how to live positively without

passing the virus on to anyone else, and they need to know how to avoid coming into contact

with a strain of the virus which differs from the one they are already have.

The only people who do not fall into one of these groups are those who have received AIDS

education, have taken it in, and have the resources to turn knowledge into action. One group who

should hopefully fall into this category are AIDS educators. This may seem obvious, but in many

cases, teachers may require teaching themselves. They may be called upon to act as AIDS

educators when they themselves have little experience or knowledge of the subject. Peer

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educators must also receive training, even if they themselves are HIV+. Information for teachers

and HIV educators will be found here.

If AIDS education that had been done up until now had been fully effective, then there wouldn't

have been over five million new infections in 2004. It is clear that the campaigns carried out so

far have failed to prevent the spread of the virus, so the message needs to be repeated, in

different forms, until people appreciate it, or until, hopefully, education is no longer needed.

ii) Describe any two modes of transmission of HIV. (250 words)

HIV is transmitted in human body fluids by three major routes: (1) sexual intercourse through

vaginal, rectal, or penile tissues; (2) direct injection with HIV-contaminated drugs, needles,

syringes, blood or blood products; and (3) from HIV-infected mother to fetus in utero, through

intrapartum inoculation from mother to infant or during breast-feeding (Stine 155). According to

the CDC, HIV is not spread by tears, sweat, coughing or sneezing. Nor it is transmitted via a an

infected person's clothes, phone, drinking glasses, eating utensils or other objects that HIV-

infected people have used that are free of blood.

Sexual Transmission

Sexual transmission of HIV happens when infected semen, blood, or vaginal secretions enter the

bloodstream of a partner. Although HIV can be transmitted during vaginal or oral penetration,

unprotected anal sex by a male or female seems to be the most dangerous. The risk to acquire

HIV depends mainly on three factors: (1) the number of sexual partners; (2) the prevalence of

HIV infection in these partners; (3) the probability of virus transmission during sexual contact.

Heterosexual HIV Transmission

In 1985, less than 2% of AIDS cases were from the heterosexual population. However, by 1993

the number increased to an 8% of the total number of reported cases in the United States. Data

demonstrate that heterosexually transmitted HIV infection is growing at a faster rate than

homosexual or IDUs (Stine 180).

Injection Drug Users and HIV Transmission

For 1996, from the total cases reported to the CDC, 36% were directly or indirectly associated

with injecting-drug use. (Stine 188). Injecting-drug-user associated with AIDS cases include

persons who are IDUs, their heterosexual sex partners and children whose mothers were IDUs or

sex partners of IDUs.

Is HIV transmitted by insects?

Epidemiological data from Africa and the Unites States suggests that AIDS was not transmitted

by insect bites. If this would be the case, many more cases would be reported among children

and elderly people.

iii) As a teacher, what value based intervention will you provide for HIV prevention

and care? Explain with illustrations. (1000 words)

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HIV prevention is using a number of methods to reduce or eliminate the risk of HIV transmission

between people. HIV can be transmitted in three main ways:

1. Sexual transmission

2. Transmission through blood

3. Mother-to-child transmission

Universal HIV prevention methods include HIV testing and counselling, condom use, and

circumcision, family planning and sex education. HIV prevention programmes aim to implement

and scale-up these HIV prevention methods at the community, local and national level.

Using treatment as prevention is a method that has emerged in recent years. Good adherence to

antiretroviral treatment can lower a person’s viral load and reduces the risk of onward HIV

transmission. HIV treatment is used to prevent the transmission of HIV from a pregnant mother

to her child (PMTCT), during pregnancy and breastfeeding. HIV treatment is also used by people

who may be exposed to HIV (pre-exposure prophylaxis), such as discordant couples, or by

people who have been exposed to HIV (post-exposure prophylaxis).

HIV prevention programmes should be comprehensive, making use of all approaches known to

be effective rather than just implementing one or a few select actions in isolation. ‘Combination

prevention’ is the term increasingly used by policy makers and programmers to describe this

approach. Successful HIV prevention programmes not only give information, but also build

skills and provide access to essential commodities such as condoms or sterile injecting

equipment. It should be remembered that many people don’t fit into only one “risk category”.

For example, injecting drug users need access to condoms and safer sex counselling as well as

support to reduce the risk of transmission through blood.

From this page you can find information about how to prevent HIV infection during sex; this

includes information about condoms and how to use condoms during vaginal, anal and oral sex.

Other HIV prevention topics, such as: the prevention of mother-to-child transmission, blood

safety, needle and syringe exchange, sex education, using treatment as prevention, as well as

information and case studies of HIV prevention around the world, can also be accessed from this

page.

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