The school is a system of social interactions; it is an organized whole consisted of interacting personalities bound together in an organic relationship. As a social system, it is characterized by an inter-dependence of parts, a clearly defined population, differentiated from its environment, a complex network of social relationships and its own unique culture.
A social system is a bounded set of elements (sub-systems) and activities that interact and constitute a single social entity. This statement implies that a social system is creative because by definition it has properties and purpose over and above the component parts and relationships. In a school, for example, educated individuals are created. In the words of Marvin Olsen, "Social system is a model of organization that possesses a distinctive total unity (creativity) beyond its component parts; it is distinguished from its environment by a clearly defined boundary; it is composed of sub-units, elements and sub-systems that are interrelated within relatively stable patterns (equilibria) of social order."
Each social system is inhabited by living people. Whenever role is being performed, it is performed by individuals. Each individual stamps the role he occupies with the unique style of his own pattern of expressive behaviour. Thus, personal dimension involves the personality of the role incumbent. The personality may be defined by the component need dispositions. The need dispositions are conceived of as forces within an individual.
A school is thought of as a social system, with its characteristic institutional functions, roles and expectations. As an institution it has the function of socialization. There are various incumbents in it who have to play the roles expected of them. In the social system of a school the goal behaviour is achieved through the integration of various institutions (classes may be taken as institutions in the sense of performing the institutionalized function of the social system).
The social systems are inhabited by living people and roles are performed by individuals who
have different personalities. It is because of this that each individual stamps 'the particular role he occupies with the unique pattern of his behaviour. That is why Getzels, et. al., in 1968 had observed: "Not all administrators "administer", not all workers "work", not all teachers "teach", not all students "study" - at least not in the same way". In brief, the individual element of the social system explains the behaviour of individuals in psychological terms with reference to their personalities and needs. This personal dimension of the social system is known as the idiographic dimension.